Why do we need Software Engineering?


To understand the necessity of software engineering, we must pause briefly to look back at the recent history of computing. This story will help us understand the problems start to become evident in the late sixties and early seventies and solutions that have led to the creation in the field of software engineering. This problem was referred to by some as “The software crisis,” so named for the symptoms of the problem. The situation could also be called “The Complexity Barrier,” so named for the primary cause of the problems. Some refer to the software crisis in the past tense. The crisis is far from over, but thanks to the development of many new techniques that are currently listed under the name of software engineering, we have made and continue to make progress.

In the early days of computing primary concern was to build or buy hardware. Software was almost expected to take care of themselves. Solidarity maintained that the “hardware” is “difficult” to change, but “software” is “soft,” or easy to change. According, most people in the industry carefully planned hardware development but gave considerably less forethought to the software. If the software did not work, they believed, it would be easy enough to change it until it did work. In that case, why make the effort to organize?

Cost of software amounted to such a small fraction of the cost of the hardware that no one considered it very important to control its development. All, however, the importance of producing programs that were efficient and ran fast because this saved time on expensive hardware. It was assumed that people time to save machine time. Making people work efficiently received little priority.

This method proved adequate in the early days of computing, when the software was simple. However, as computing matures, applications became more complex and projects grew larger than had since been regularly, write, run and maintain all of the same party, applications began to develop teams of developers to meet someone else’s expectations.

Individual effort gave way to teamwork. Communication and coordination which once went on inside the head of one person had to occur between the heads of many people, making the whole process a lot more complicated. . Consequently, communication, management, planning and data became important

Consider this analogy: a carpenter might work alone to build a simple house for himself without more than the general concept of the plan. He or she could work it out or make changes that work progress. That’s how early programs were written. But if the home is more elaborate, or if it is built for someone else, the carpenter has to plan better how the house is built. Plans must be reviewed by a future owner before construction begins. And if the house is to be built by many carpenters, the whole project certainly has to be organized before beginning work so that as one carpenter builds one part of the house, another is building on the other side different houses. Timing will be key so that cement contractors pour the basement walls before the carpenters start the framing. The house will work more complex and people need to be coordinated, blueprints and action is required.

plans became more complex, the early methods used to make drawings (flowcharts) were no longer sufficient to represent this greater complexity. And so it became difficult for one person who needed a program written to be transferred to another party, programmer, just what was wanted, or for developers to communicate to each other what they were doing. In fact, without better methods of representation it became difficult for even one programmer to keep track of what he or she is doing.

The times required to write programs and their costs began to go to all estimates. It was not unusual for systems to cost more than double what had been scheduled to take weeks, months or years longer than expected to complete. The systems delivered to the customer often did not work properly because the money or time had run out before the plans could be made to work as originally intended. Or the program was so complex that any attempt to fix a problem produced more problems than it fixed. As clients finally saw what they were getting, they often change their minds about what they wanted. At least one very large military software systems project costing several hundred million dollars was abandoned because it could never be made to work properly.

The quality of applications was also a major concern. As computers and their applications were used for more important tasks, like monitoring life support equipment, program quality took on new meaning. Since we had increased our dependency on computers and in many cases could not get by without them, we discovered how important it is that they are operating properly.

made within a complex program turned out to be very expensive. Often even get the program to do something slightly different was so hard that it was easier to throw out the old program and start over. This, of course, was expensive. Part of the development of the software engineering approach was learning to develop systems that are built well enough the first time so that simple changes can be made easily.

At the same time, hardware was growing ever cheaper. Tubes were replaced by transistors and transistors were replaced by integrated circuits until micro computers costing less than three thousand dollars have become several million dollars. A sign of how fast change was introduced, the cost of a certain amount of computing decreases by half every two years. In light of this restructuring, the time and cost to develop software was no longer so small, compared to the hardware, they might be ignored.

and the cost of hardware fell, software continues to be written by men, whose wages rose. Savings of improved productivity in software development in the use of assemblers, collector and database management system not proceed as fast as the savings in hardware costs. Indeed, today software costs not only can no longer be ignored, they have become larger than hardware costs. Some current trends, such as nonprocedural (fourth generation) languages ​​and the use of artificial intelligence (fifth generation), promise increasing software development productivity, but we are only beginning to see the potential.

Another problem was that in the past programs were often before it was fully understood what the program has to do. Once the program has been written, the client began to express dissatisfaction. And if the customer is unhappy, especially manufacturers, too, was unhappy. As time went by software developers learned to lay out paper and pencil exactly what they have to do before you start. Then they could go over the plans with the client to see if they met the customer’s expectations. It is simpler and cheaper to make changes to this paper-and-pencil version than to make them after the system has been built. Using good planning makes it less likely that changes will be made when the program is completed.

Unfortunately, until a few years ago not a good way representative be adequately described a system as complex as the ones being developed today. The only good representation of what the product will look like the finished product itself. Developers could not show clients what they were planning. And customers could not see whether the software was what they wanted until it was finally built. It was too expensive to change.

Again, consider the analogy of building construction. The architect can draw a floor plan. The customer can usually understand what the architect has planned and give feed back on whether it is appropriate. Floor plans are fairly easy for the layperson to understand because most people are familiar with drawings representing geometrical objects. Architect and client components common ideas about space and geometry. But the software engineer will be a system for the client includes logic and information processing. Since they do not already have a language of common concepts, software engineer must teach a new language to the customer before they can communicate.

Moreover, it is important that these issues be simple so it can be learned quickly.


What are the most popular fields of engineering?


Engineering is one of the most practical yet very lucrative and creative disciplines. Basically, it implements both the technical and scientific knowledge to simultaneously utilize physical resources and natural law in order to design and create materials, structures, devices, or even a system to meet different standards safely.

Continued detection and advances in technology have helped make this discipline even more influential and significant. Also, engineers are considered one of the highest paid professionals today. If you are thinking of becoming an engineer, here are some of the most popular field of engineering you consider pursuing

Mechanical Engineering

Considered perhaps the most difficult field engineering, mechanical field applies to all the physical principles of design, analysis, implementation, as well as maintenance of mechanical systems. Students of the course need to learn the concepts of kinematics, thermodynamics, fluid systems, energy as well as mechanics. Mes may work in a variety of manufacturing companies that produce cars, water jets, planes, and the like.

Electrical Engineering

Graduates of electrical engineering specializing in dealing with electromagnetism, electricity and electronics. The increase in demand and the importance of electric power supply and electronic Telegraph turned Electrical field in a very identifiable industry now includes telecommunications, electronics, and power monitoring. Thousands of engineers are now employed in power and utility companies, along with mobile manufacturing companies.

Computer Engineering

With the advent of computer technology, another field was important – computer engineering. This field basically combines the power of computer science and electronics. Computer engineers are actually electronics engineers who have a deeper training in computer technology. They specialize in software and software-hardware integration. Computer engineers are often seen in large manufacturers microchip as well as mobile device makers.

Civil Engineering

Construction is the perfect program for those who want to have a career in public works. It is also said that the construction sector is the second oldest engineering field. Civil engineers involved in the design, construction and maintenance of physical structures such as roads, bridges and buildings too. Civil engineers have virtually no trouble finding a job that almost one needs for a variety of construction projects every part of society.

There are various sub-disciplines that an engineer can choose to specialize in. Among these specialty areas most in demand are structural, geotechnical and environmental engineering professions.

Chemical Engineers

Physics and chemistry are the specialty area of ​​chemical engineering. In chemical engineering, the principles of this field of science applied mathematical theory in order to change the subject in a more secure and useful compounds. Most of the time, chemical engineers working in large manufacturing companies to come up with new and better methods of chemical products.

Aside from these five fields of engineering, you will also find others who may be a bit more complicated than usual. But all in all, no matter what field of engineering you choose to specialize in, you will be expected to create new products or systems that will benefit society as a whole.


Types of Engineering Jobs


The endlessly competitive labor market, potential employees are having a tough time finding a well-paid, interesting and steady employment. Luckily, engineering jobs are to enjoy a continuous rise for the next twenty years and is meant to be as one of the safest and highest-paying jobs in the market. Although every field of engineering are unique challenges and benefits, there are some things that all potential engineers must consider before he left the field of electricity, aviation, civil, mechanical, biomedical, or computer engineering, to name a few.

Engineering can be very technical work and covers all areas of a minimum certification, if not a bachelor’s or doctorate. The types of engineering jobs can be broken down into two separate areas. The first of these jobs for engineers, they are in the research, design and development. This work will require large-schooling, but most often it is accompanied by higher pay and more benefits. Other areas covered in the production and maintenance departments. These are often described as the field work and will require the application of information instead of more theoretical work.

Two of the most common engineers are mechanical and electrical engineer. Availability of these jobs and training necessary for them can vary greatly depending on location and time of year. While many existing mechanical and electronics engineers may have been grandfathered in their current positions, new hires within will go very special certification, education, and license. Electrical engineering permits different state by state and usually require a test that allows for electrician certification.

Currently, one of the most lucrative jobs in engineering is the field of computers. Computer Engineering jobs have been rising over the past two decades accompanying giant leaps in technology. The same applies to biomedical and agricultural engineering. These three areas of expertise are unique blend of theoretical and practical application engineer. Generally, each of these specialties will require significant education or training for prospective employees.


Mathematics in computer programming


Math applicable in various traditional areas of engineering: mechanical and electrical engineering are among them. Mathematics is used in computer engineering too.

Mathematical Logic is used in decision making, so it is used in computer programming. As Venn diagrams are helpful in understanding the concepts of logic, they are also useful in programming. For example, songs De Morgan used in writing statements concerning decisions and Venn diagrams are useful to understand these laws.

Calculations are also important in scientific computers. The text you read on a computer screen is presented in a particular form. The data is certainly a need for this.

Geometry is used in the development of graphics. Indeed graphics screen resembles a coordinate plane. Just as we have points in the coordinate plane, we have points on the graphics screen. While there are endless number of points in any bounded part of the plane, but the number of points on the graphics screen is limited, yet the technology to coordinate geometry can be used to draw various figures on the graphics screen.

Various transformations involved in software development. Two such transformations are famous as “shoot and push the transformation.” As images are useful in understanding the different types of transformation, this help understand, especially Pop and push transformation too.

classical computer programming namely ‘C language “makes much use of mathematics. Different graphics commands this language are based on mathematical logic. Commands to do background utilizing hexadecimal numbers.


Why Programming Language “C” is necessary for Mechanical Engineers


Learning computer programming is required for engineering these days. Various CAD and CAM software is to be handled by engineers, as almost all projects are designed with CAD software and CAM software and have an important role in the production processes. There are many programming languages ​​that need to learn from Mechanical Engineer students. These are Fortran, Matlab, C and C ++, etc. How many can be taught to the aspirant mechanical engineers only 8 or 10 hours allotted in the curriculum undergraduate mechanical engineering courses? Then the language should be taught in this short time?

Various programming languages ​​in the curriculum mechanical engineering courses. Assembly language is taught to them to make them familiar hardware interface. C programming language is taught based programming language and is useful for developing hardware interface applications. Last year undergraduate mechanical workshops C ++, objected oriented programming is included. What computer language should emphasize at this limited time?

No doubt, the C language is a necessity for all Mechanical Engineer students. Matlab language used for mathematical programming was selected in 1998 and was replaced by FORTRAN. The FORTRAN language ruined mechanical engineering courses since 1998 and was one of four languages ​​for undergraduate students of mechanical engineering. However, the FORTRAN language not able to meet the needs of engineers and that was the reason why BC was introduced in the curriculum. It was learned from the experience of the student who was well versed in programming with Malabo were not able to carry out research. So, in most academic institutions, programming BC was induced in the curriculum in 2003. Why “BC” was preferred over other programming languages.

This is because the BC language supports 64-bit computing and follows international standards that are supported by major companies computing industry. On the other hand, Matlab is a private which was used in mathematical programming. Certainly, the technology that is open is better than a private any. Just guess popularity C. According to the statistics shown by some reports, the language C holds the second position in Programming Community Index with 16.8 percent of the market, next to Java, another programming language used for e-commerce on the Internet language. The Matlab is nowhere available in the index.

What programming language C is selected for Mechanical curriculum? C language is widely preferred language for the hardware interface. This is the language that is used for software development for various household appliances. Did you ever realize this and change channels with the TV remote? Woman may know she is using software written in C but with computerized machine or microwave?

I know you want more information on the programming language C and the reason this language is taught in mechanical engineering curriculum. Is it possible for me to explain this here? I will suggest you to go online for more information.


Accounting, Engineering, Computer Science & Wages Rice


In the Spring 2010 issue of Salary Survey , the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) announced that starting salaries for accounting, finance, engineering and science majors figure is increasing. This is in view of the reduced starting salary offers for other recent graduates who majored in business administration, marketing, or liberal arts.

So what does this all mean for you? If you are majoring in one of the following majors, or thinking about studying one of the following majors, here is exactly how much extra money you can expect to have in your pocket after you register to start contract

Accounting Salary : Up.4 percent to $ 48,575

How to Start an Accounting Career :

auditors provide a valuable service to individuals, independent businesses and large corporations alike. An accounting degree will help teach you everything you need to know about this process, and prepare you to take the Certified Public Accountant (CPA) exam

Computer Science Salaries :. Up 4.7 percent to $ 60,426

How to start a Computer Science Career :

If you spend any part of the day working on the computer, you know how invaluable computer experts. As computers become more and more indispensable everyday life, opportunities for career paths are endless

Chemical Engineering Salary :. Up 1.6 percent to $ 66,437

How to start a chemical engineering Career :

If you love to play with the chemical set as a child, you might enjoy a career as a chemical engineer. These experts combine the physical sciences, such as chemistry, with life sciences and mathematics to produce some of the most precious materials and chemical processes of our time. To start, you need a bachelor’s degree in chemical engineering. . Visit our bachelor degree programs page for information on degree programs BS

Civil Engineering Salary : Up 1.3 percent to $ 52,443

How to start a civil Career :

Next time you drive over the bridge, past the underpass, or head to the airport, remember this: all of these institutions are the work of civil engineers. A civil engineering degree will teach you how to study the different environments and build structures that will survive the elements (and will be completed on time and on budget)

Electrical Test Engineering :. Up 3 percent to $ 59,326

How to start an electrical engineer Career :

To become an electrician, you need to know how to build, test and develop the hottest new electronic components and devices. BA degree in engineering will get you on your way. . Visit our bachelor degree programs page for information on degree programs BS

Finance Salary : Up 1.6 percent to $ 50,546

How to Start a Career Finance :

A finance degree can open the door to work in financial analysis, financial audit and business. To find a financial careers and degree programs, visit financial analyst career our profile.

For more information on these jobs and degree programs, visit this career profiles page.


Computer Engineering – Decoding, scope and elements


With the invasion of computers in our lives since the early nineties, every thing is now run by computers. They have made our lives easier and better in various aspects. Be it arts, medicine, sports, technology, entertainment, we are governed by computers to a large extent and with this introduction, we often hear the word computer engineering. Needless to say, mainly used incorrectly and often interchangeably. How do we know if someone is a computer engineer? Is anyone working on a computer and is able to perform some basic maintenance, engineer?

Most often than not, people want the wrong interpretation of this term. Let’s read what computer engineers is and what he does. Technically speaking, computer engineers may refer to a person who is qualified in principle concepts of electrical engineering in the amalgam of computing. Now, to read between the lines may sound simple, but it is not. Engineers develop and refine their portfolio based on the principles of engineering and computer development activities.

They apply these techniques later to fit the specific issues and challenges of computing. It would sound strange when I would say that the computer is actually a living organism, but seeing daily place development and changes, you with me, and Darwin’s theory as well. Computer engineer implement engineering skills combined with an understanding of software and hardware design and implementation of a single theory. They carry out reforms in various sectors and aspects of computers such as security, networking, software development, design of new products and even artificial intelligence.

With the fast pace of our lives, computers have slowly crept in, and the same goes for the demand confident, competent and proficient computer engineers. A decade ago, there were only a few players in the industry that was driving everyone in the world by providing solutions and meet the demands of daily increasing computer user database now, the scenario has changed. Today we have a strong computer engineer work from search engines to application development, cloud computing database solutions cars in the mobile network, bionics to ticketing and retail.

An added advantage is that this computer engineers bring added skills knowledge of electrical systems. So they work together with electrical engineers and working with them to offer a lot of services, such as cable, optical and medical equipment is. It has come as a boon for most of us until now, we are progressing at great speed towards new technologies. Today, engineers capable computers in huge demand because of the outreach strategy and economics in even the farthest places.

They are offering customized solutions to their businesses and make people’s lives better. Some examples are – the hospitality industry to create a more effective management, the automobile industry to create better machines with more speed, safety and maneuverability, Telecom to provide better and cheaper and more reliable network solutions to enhance user, banking handle business customers more security.


Computer Engineering Degrees may offer Career Stability


A great way to combine Electrical Engineering and Computer is looking for a job in computer engineering. Receiving training in design software and hardware-software integration towards a computer engineering degree allows you to focus on power electronics and physics, possibly more than counterparts electrical devices. In great demand today with great prospects, computer engineers can enjoy long-term career stability and financial independence.

Generally, computer engineer Understand and adeptness with the following before becoming computer engineers

  • algorithm
  • Computer architecture & Networking
  • lanes and signal
  • Databases
  • Digital logic & signal processing
  • Electronics
  • Embedded, operating and distributed systems
  • human-computer interaction; social and professional issues
  • Programming
  • Software Engineering
  • VLSI design and fabrication

As a field, computer engineering technology reduces individuals with an interest, training or expertise in the following:

  • ASIC design, FPGA development, hardware development, software development, hardware integration, circuit design and system-level design and integration.
  • Mathematics and Science.
  • Technology solutions require intensive, logical thought-provoking selection and “out of the box” thinking.

If you consider computer engineering is the field for you and you, you should consider the technical organization offers you in-depth study, as full breadth of expertise will be used in the design and implementation of computer, and after graduation.

ITT Technical Institute has not only in-depth computer engineering technology programs that combine education with real-world application, the agency also offers the possibility to complete a Computer Engineering degree your state-of-the-art classrooms, as well as online. ITT Tech is committed to helping you to work with the delicate balance between education towards becoming a computer engineer with your work and personal life. This makes the transition from the classroom to the real world much easier.

Whether you choose to get all the training to become a computer engineer in the classroom or through online courses, you may be on the way to a career that is stable and financially rewarding. Maybe electrical engineering and computer science knowledge will lead to the next big breakthrough in Computer Engineering ?


The Best Computer Engineering Colleges in California


Remington College is a top California Computer Engineering College specializing in computer electronics technology. There are many programs that you can enroll in. The focus of the college is to foster skills both media and information communication technology. California State University is another center for those who want to become a computer engineer.

share this California Computer Engineering College that deal with computer science in Bay Area this situation. The school hosts then known as College of Engineering and Computer Science. Engineering Colleges tend to offer courses with slightly varying content. The quality of the computer courses offered is anyway high.

There are many other Engineering Colleges had the quality of education is of high quality. While still focused on media policy causes their Bay Area Colleges offer high quality programs. All these Computer Colleges offer both electrical and software engineering components that are available in a very interactive mode that allows students to apply the knowledge to the real world. University of California, Berkeley one of the most acclaimed Bay Computer Engineering colleges that are recognized throughout the United States

In terms of competition, shine all Bay Area colleges returning College of Engineering and Computer Science stands out on top of them. Its success in FSAE competitions last year was outstanding. California Computer schools students from CSUN was recently featured in Try Engineering drive that allows them to understand in more detail what it means to be a computer engineer.

California State University, Fullerton is widely known among the best computer engineering colleges , which focuses on both the software process and software engineering. The knowledge portion here is such that it allows graduates to understand the underlying principles that make design work easy and fast. The program takes 22 months to complete. The Department of Computer Science has online programs in place, leading to a master’s degree in software engineering. This degree prepares graduates for leadership positions in the labor market.


Computer Engineer Salary


Report CNNMoney says that students who majored in computer engineering were the top earners in the class of 2011. On top of that, according to Bureau of Labor Statistics, the demand for software engineers is expected to grow by almost 38% in 2016. You can just stumbled upon your new career !

There are two types of engineers, hardware and software. A hardware engineer examines the physical part. They research, design, and test the physical components of a computer where circuit chips and keyboard. A software engineer, called developers, creating applications for users to perform tasks. They create software that translates instructions from programs into instructions the hardware can understand. They create an operating system and a computer interface for desktop and consumer electronics.

95% of jobs are located in metropolitan areas. Positions are located in the laboratory and production labs. Some work in computer system design companies, research and development companies or the federal government. Just as there is a range of possible working environment you may end up to be, there are also a large variety of things you may want to create applications for. Computer engineer living in computers, cell phones, navigation systems in the car, video games, and etc. If you are creative, love computers, and do not mind making a lot of money in the process then this just might be for you!

Some of the wealthiest persons coming directly from school are graduates in computer engineering field. This is a great incentive to buckled down and stay focused on the late nights studying in your dorm. This will literally pay .. BIG TIME! The average salary for computer engineer job postings nationwide are 29% higher than the average salary for all jobs nationwide. Sounds good yet? Let’s go to the specifics.

The whole computer engineer salary is $ 87,000. To be even more precise, let us discuss what you can expect if you enter a part of the hardware or software. Starting with the low end of what you can expect. As a software designer lowest 10% to average $ 45.44 / hour or $ 57,810 per year. Top 10% on average, $ 65.28 or $ 135,780. As a hardware engineer percentage or a slight bit higher. A computer hardware engineer wages at the low end can expect to average $ 48.73 / hour or $ 62.400. The highest 10% of the hardware engineers make $ 70.07 / hour or $ 147,610. Not a bad day’s work!